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:0hd Demonoid See Demonoid.

:101 (p5) Found by Achim Flammenkamp in August 1994. The name was suggested by Bill Gosper, noting that the phase shown below displays the period in binary.

	....OO......OO....
	...O.O......O.O...
	...O..........O...
	OO.O..........O.OO
	OO.O.O..OO..O.O.OO
	...O.O.O..O.O.O...
	...O.O.O..O.O.O...
	OO.O.O..OO..O.O.OO
	OO.O..........O.OO
	...O..........O...
	...O.O......O.O...
	....OO......OO....

:10hd Demonoid See Demonoid.

:119P4H1V0 (c/4 orthogonally, p4) A spaceship discovered by Dean Hickerson in December 1989, the first spaceship of its kind to be found. Hickerson then found a small tagalong for this spaceship which could be attached to one side or both. These three variants of 119P4H1V0 were the only known c/4 orthogonal spaceships until July 1992 when Hartmut Holzwart discovered a larger spaceship, 163P4H1V0.

	.................................O.
	................O...............O.O
	......O.O......O.....OO........O...
	......O....O....O.OOOOOO....OO.....
	......O.OOOOOOOO..........O..O.OOO.
	.........O.....O.......OOOO....OOO.
	....OO.................OOO.O.......
	.O..OO.......OO........OO..........
	.O..O..............................
	O..................................
	.O..O..............................
	.O..OO.......OO........OO..........
	....OO.................OOO.O.......
	.........O.....O.......OOOO....OOO.
	......O.OOOOOOOO..........O..O.OOO.
	......O....O....O.OOOOOO....OO.....
	......O.O......O.....OO........O...
	................O...............O.O
	.................................O.

:1-2-3 (p3) Found by Dave Buckingham, August 1972. This is one of only three essentially different p3 oscillators with only three cells in the rotor. The others are stillater and cuphook.

	..OO......
	O..O......
	OO.O.OO...
	.O.O..O...
	.O....O.OO
	..OOO.O.OO
	.....O....
	....O.....
	....OO....

:1-2-3-4 (p4) See also Achim's p4.

	.....O.....
	....O.O....
	...O.O.O...
	...O...O...
	OO.O.O.O.OO
	O.O.....O.O
	...OOOOO...
	...........
	.....O.....
	....O.O....
	.....O.....

:135-degree MWSS-to-G The following converter, discovered by Matthias Merzenich in July 2013. It accepts an MWSS as input, and produces an output glider traveling at a 135-degree angle relative to the input direction.

	......OO......
	......O.O.OO.O
	........O.O.OO
	........OO....
	..............
	..............
	.OOOOO.....OO.
	O....O.....OO.
	.....O........
	O...O.........
	..O...........

:14-ner = fourteener

:17c/45 spaceship A spaceship travelling at seventeen forty-fifths of the speed of light. This was the first known macro-spaceship speed. See Caterpillar for details.

:180-degree kickback The only other two-glider collision besides the standard kickback that produces a clean 180-degree output glider. It is occasionally useful in glider synthesis, but is rarely used in signal circuitry or in self-supporting patterns like the Caterpillar or Centipede, because 90-degree collisions are generally much easier to arrange.

	.O.
	O..
	OOO
	...
	...
	.OO
	O.O
	..O

:1G seed See seed.

:(23,5)c/79 Herschel climber The following glider-supported Herschel climber reaction used in the self-supporting waterbear knightship, which can be repeated every 79 ticks, moving the Herschel 23 cells to the right and 5 cells upward, and releasing two gliders to the northwest and southwest. As the diagram shows, it is possible to substitute a loaf or other still lifes for some or all of the support gliders. This fact is used to advantage at the front end of the waterbear.

	...............O.O...............O..
	...............OO...............O.O.
	................O...............O..O
	.................................OO.
	....................................
	....................................
	....................................
	....................................
	....................................
	....................................
	....................................
	....................................
	O...................................
	O.O.................................
	OOO.................................
	..O.................................

:24-cell quadratic growth A 39786×143 quadratic growth pattern found by Michael Simkin in October 2014, two days after 25-cell quadratic growth and a week before switch-engine ping-pong.

:25-cell quadratic growth A 25-cell quadratic growth pattern found by Michael Simkin in October 2014, with a bounding box of 21372×172. It was the smallest-population quadratic growth pattern for two days, until the discovery of 24-cell quadratic growth. It superseded 26-cell quadratic growth, which had held the record for eight years.

:25P3H1V0.1 (c/3 orthogonally, p3) A spaceship discovered by Dean Hickerson in August 1989. It was the first c/3 spaceship to be discovered. In terms of its 25 cells, it is tied with 25P3H1V0.2 as the smallest c/3 spaceship. Unlike 25P3H1V0.2, it has a population of 25 in all of its phases, as well as a smaller bounding box.

	.......OO.O.....
	....OO.O.OO.OOO.
	.OOOO..OO......O
	O....O...O...OO.
	.OO.............
Martin Grant discovered a glider synthesis for 25P3H1V0.1 on 6 January 2015.

:25P3H1V0.2 (c/3 orthogonally, p3) A spaceship discovered by David Bell in early 1992, with a minimum of 25 cells - the lowest number of cells known for any c/3 spaceship. A note in Spaceships in Conway's Life indicates that it was found with a search that limited the number of live cells in each column, and possibly also the maximum cross-section (4 cells in this case). See also edge-repair spaceship for a very similar c/3 spaceship with a minimum population of 26.

	..........O.....
	........OOO.OOO.
	.......OO......O
	..O...O..O...OO.
	.OOOO...........
	O...O...........
	.O.O..O.........
	.....O..........

:26-cell quadratic growth A quadratic growth pattern found by Nick Gotts in March 2006, using ideas found in metacatacryst and Gotts dots. It held the record for the smallest-population quadratic growth pattern for eight years, until it was surpassed by 25-cell quadratic growth.

:295P5H1V1 (c/5 diagonally, p5) The first spaceship of its type to be discovered, found by Jason Summers on 22 November 2000.

	.............OO.....................................
	.....OO....OO.O.O...................................
	....OOO....OOOO.....................................
	...OO......OO.....O.................................
	..OO..OO...O..O..O..................................
	.OO.....O.......O..OO...............................
	.OO.O...OOOO........................................
	....O...OO..OO.O....................................
	.....OOO....O.O.....................................
	......OO...OO..O....................................
	......O.....O.......................................
	.OOOO.O..O..O...O...................................
	.OOO...OOOOO..OOOOOOO.O.............................
	O.O....O..........O..OO.............................
	OOO.O...O...O.....OOO...............................
	.......O.O..O.......OO..............................
	.O...O.....OO........OO..O.O........................
	....O.......O........OOO.O.OOO......................
	...O........OOO......O....O.........................
	.....O......O.O.....O.O.............................
	.....O......O.OO...O....O...........................
	.............O.OOOO...O.....O..O....................
	............OO..OO.O.O...O.OOO......................
	.................O......O..OOO...OOO................
	....................O..O......OO....................
	................OO....O..O..........OO..............
	..................O.............O...O...............
	................OO....OO........O...................
	.................O...OOO........O.O.O.O.............
	.................O....OO........O.....OO............
	........................O........O..OOO.............
	.....................O..O........O........O.........
	..........................OOOO........OO...O........
	.......................O......OO......OO...O........
	.......................O....O............O..........
	.......................O...............O............
	.........................OO.O.O.......O..O..........
	.........................O....O.........OOO.........
	............................OOO.OO..O...O...O.OO....
	.............................O..OO.O.....O...O..O...
	.....................................OO..O...O......
	..................................O.OO.OO.O..OO...O.
	...............................O.....O...O.......O.O
	................................OO............OO...O
	......................................O.......OO....
	.......................................OOO...OO..O..
	......................................O..O.OOO......
	......................................O....OO.......
	.......................................O............
	..........................................O..O......
	.........................................O..........
	..........................................OO........

:2c/3 Two thirds of the speed of light - the speed of signals in a 2c/3 wire or of some against the grain negative spaceship signals in the zebra stripes agar, and also the speed of burning of the blinker fuse and the bi-block fuse.

:2c/3 wire A wire discovered by Dean Hickerson in March 1997, using his dr search program. It supports signals that travel through the wire diagonally at two thirds of the speed of light.

	......O..O.......................................
	....OOOOOO.......................................
	...O.............................................
	...O..OOOOOO.....................................
	OO.O.O.O....O....................................
	OO.O.O.OOOOOO....................................
	....OO.O.......O.................................
	.......O..OOOOOO.................................
	.......O.O.......................................
	......OO.O..OOOOOO...............................
	.........O.O......O..............................
	.........O.O..OOOOO..............................
	..........OO.O.......O...........................
	.............O..OOOOOO...........................
	.............O.O.................................
	............OO.O..OOOOOO.........................
	...............O.O......O........................
	...............O.O..OOOOO........................
	................OO.O.......O.....................
	...................O..OOOOOO.....................
	...................O.O...........................
	..................OO.O..OOOOOO...................
	.....................O.O......O..................
	.....................O.O..OOOOO..................
	......................OO.O.......O...............
	.........................O..OOOOOO...............
	.........................O.O.....................
	........................OO.O..OOOOOO.............
	...........................O.O......O............
	...........................O.O..OOOOO............
	............................OO.O.......O.........
	...............................O..OOOOOO.........
	...............................O.O...............
	..............................OO.O..OOOOOO.......
	.................................O.O......O......
	.................................O.O..OOOOO......
	..................................OO.O.......O...
	.....................................O..OOOOOO...
	.....................................O.O.........
	....................................OO.O..OOOOOO.
	.......................................O.O......O
	.......................................O.O..OOO.O
	........................................OO.O...O.
	...........................................O..O..
	...........................................O.O...
	..........................................OO.O.O.
	..............................................OO.

Each 2c/3 signal is made up of two half-signals that can be separated from each other by an arbitrary number of ticks.

Considerable effort has been spent on finding a way to turn a 2c/3 signal 90 or 180 degrees, since this would by one way to prove Life to be omniperiodic. There is a known 2c/3 converter shown under signal elbow, which converts a standard 2c/3 signal into a double-length signal. This is usable in some situations, but unfortunately it fails when its input is a double-length signal, so it can't be used to complete a loop.

Noam Elkies discovered a glider synthesis of a reaction that can repeatably insert a signal into the upper end of a 2c/3 wire. See stable pseudo-Heisenburp for details. On 11 September 2017, Martin Grant reduced the input reaction to five gliders, or three gliders plus a Herschel. With the Herschel option the recovery time is 152 ticks.

See also 5c/9 wire.

:2c/5 spaceship A spaceship travelling at two fifths of the speed of light. The only such spaceships that are currently known travel orthogonally. Examples include 30P5H2V0, 44P5H2V0, 60P5H2V0, and 70P5H2V0. At the time of this writing (November 2017) only 30P5H2V0 and 60P5H2V0 have known glider synthesis recipes.

:2c/7 spaceship A spaceship travelling at two sevenths of the speed of light. The only such spaceships that are currently known travel orthogonally. The first to be found was the weekender, found by David Eppstein in January 2000. See also weekender distaff.

:2 eaters = two eaters

:2-glider collision Two gliders can react with each other in many different ways, either at right angles, or else head-on. A large number of the reactions cleanly destroy both gliders leaving nothing. Many of the remaining reactions cleanly create some common objects, and so are used as the first steps in glider synthesis or as part of constructing interesting objects using rakes. Only a small number of collisions can be considered dirty due to creating multiple objects or a mess.

Here is a list of the possible results along with how many different ways they can occur (ignoring reflections and rotations).

	-------------------------------
	result     right-angle  head-on
	-------------------------------
	nothing             11       17
	beehive            1        0
	B-heptomino        1        2
	bi-block           1        0
	blinker            2        1
	block              3        3
	boat               0        1
	eater1             1        0
	glider             1        1
	honey farm         3        2
	interchange        1        0
	loaf               0        1
	lumps of muck      1        0
	octomino           0        1
	pi-heptomino       2        1
	pond               1        1
	teardrop           1        0
	traffic light      2        1
	four skewed blocks 0        1
	dirty              6        0
	-------------------------------
The messiest of the two-glider collisions in the "dirty" category is 2-glider mess.

:2-glider mess A constellation made up of eight blinkers, four blocks, a beehive and a ship, plus four emitted gliders, created by the following 2-glider collision.

	..O.........
	O.O.........
	.OO.........
	...........O
	.........OO.
	..........OO
Two of the blocks, two of the gliders, and the ship are the standard signature ash of a Herschel.

:30P5H2V0 (2c/5 orthogonally, p5) A spaceship discovered by Paul Tooke on 7 December 2000. With just 30 cells, it is currently the smallest known 2c/5 spaceship. A glider synthesis for 30P5H2V0 was found by Martin Grant in January 2015, based on a predecessor by Tanner Jacobi.

	....O........
	...OOO.......
	..OO.OO......
	.............
	.O.O.O.O..O..
	OO...O...OOO.
	OO...O......O
	..........O.O
	........O.O..
	.........O..O
	............O

:31c/240 The rate of travel of the 31c/240 Herschel-pair climber reaction, and Caterpillar-type spaceships based on that reaction. Each Herschel travels 31 cells orthogonally every 240 ticks.

:31c/240 Herschel-pair climber The mechanism defining the rate of travel of the Centipede and shield bug spaceships. Compare pi climber. It consists of a pair of Herschels climbing two parallel chains of blocks. Certain spacings between the block chains allow gliders from each Herschel to delete the extra ash objects produced by the other Herschel. Two more gliders escape, one to each side, leaving only an exact copy of the original block chains, but shifted forward by 9 cells:

	OO.........................................................OO
	OO.........................................................OO
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	OO.........................................................OO
	OO.........................................................OO
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.............................................................
	.......................................................OOO...
	.......................................................O..O..
	.......................................................O..O..
	......................................................OOOO...
	.......OOO............................................OO.....
	........O............................................O.......
	......OOO.............................................O......
	......................................................O......

:3c/7 spaceship A spaceship travelling at three sevenths of the speed of light. The only such spaceships that are currently known travel orthogonally. The first to be found was the spaghetti monster, found by Tim Coe in June 2016.

:3-engine Cordership See Cordership.

:44P5H2V0 (2c/5 orthogonally, p5) A spaceship discovered by Dean Hickerson on 23 July 1991, the first 2c/5 spaceship to be found. Small tagalongs were found by Robert Wainwright and David Bell that allowed the creation of arbitrarily large 2c/5 spaceships. These were the only known 2c/5 spaceships until the discovery of 70P5H2V0 in December 1992.

	....O.....O....
	...OOO...OOO...
	..O..O...O..O..
	.OOO.......OOO.
	..O.O.....O.O..
	....OO...OO....
	O....O...O....O
	.....O...O.....
	OO...O...O...OO
	..O..O...O..O..
	....O.....O....

:45-degree LWSS-to-G = 45-degree MWSS-to-G.

:45-degree MWSS-to-G The following small converter, which accepts an MWSS or LWSS as input and produces an output glider traveling at a 45-degree angle relative to the input direction.

	.........O.OO....O.....
	.........OO.O...O.O....
	................O.O....
	.......OOOOO...OO.OOO..
	......O..O..O........O.
	......OO...OO..OO.OOO..
	...............OO.O....
	......................O
	....................OOO
	...................O...
	...................OO..
	.OOOOO.................
	O....O.................
	.....O.................
	O...O..................
	..O.............OO.....
	...............O..O....
	................OO.....
	........OO.............
	.......O.O.............
	.......O...............
	......OO...............
	...................OO..
	...................O...
	....................OOO
	......................O

:4-8-12 diamond The following pure glider generator.

	....OOOO....
	............
	..OOOOOOOO..
	............
	OOOOOOOOOOOO
	............
	..OOOOOOOO..
	............
	....OOOO....

:4 boats (p2)

	...O....
	..O.O...
	.O.OO...
	O.O..OO.
	.OO..O.O
	...OO.O.
	...O.O..
	....O...

:4F = Fast Forward Force Field. This term is no longer in common use.

:4g-to-5g reaction A reaction involving 4 gliders which cleanly produces 5 gliders. The one shown below was found by Dieter Leithner in July 1992:

	O.O..........................................
	.OO..........................................
	.O...........................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.............................................
	.................O...........................
	...............O.O..O........................
	................OO..O.O....................O.
	....................OO....................OO.
	..........................................O.O

The first two gliders collide to produce a traffic light and glider. The other two gliders react symmetrically with the evolving traffic light to form four gliders. A glider gun can be built by using reflectors to turn four of the output gliders so that they repeat the reaction.

:56P6H1V0 (c/6 orthogonally, p6) A 56-cell spaceship discovered by Hartmut Holzwart in 2009, the smallest known c/6 orthogonal spaceship as of this writing (November 2017).

	.....OOO..........OOO.....
	OOO.O.......OO.......O.OOO
	....O...O..O..O..O...O....
	....O.....O....O.....O....
	..........OO..OO..........
	.......O...O..O...O.......
	.......O.O......O.O.......
	........OOOOOOOOOO........
	..........O....O..........
	........O........O........
	.......O..........O.......
	........O........O........

:58P5H1V1 (c/5 diagonally, p5) A spaceship discovered by Matthias Merzenich on 5 September 2010. In terms of its minimum population of 58 cells it is the smallest known c/5 diagonal spaceship. It provides sparks at its trailing edge which can perturb gliders, and this property was used to create the first c/5 diagonal puffers. These sparks also allow the attachment of tagalongs which was used to create the first c/5 diagonal wickstretcher in January 2011.

	....................OO.
	....................OO.
	...................O..O
	................OO.O..O
	......................O
	..............OO...O..O
	..............OO.....O.
	...............O.OOOOO.
	................O......
	.......................
	.......................
	.............OOO.......
	.............O.........
	...........OO..........
	.....OO....O...........
	.....OOO...O...........
	...O....O..............
	...O...O...............
	.......O...............
	..OO.O.O...............
	OO.....O...............
	OO....OO...............
	..OOOO.................

:5c/9 wire A wire discovered by Dean Hickerson in April 1997, using his dr search program. It supports signals that travel through the wire diagonally at five ninths of the speed of light. See also 2c/3 wire.

	....O.OO............................................
	....OO..O...........................................
	.......O..O.........................................
	..OOOOO.OO.O..O.....................................
	.O..O...O..OOOO.....................................
	.O.OO.O.O.O......O..................................
	OO.O.OOOO.O..OOOOO..................................
	...O......O.O.....OO................................
	OO.O.OOOO.O..O.OO.O.O...............................
	O..O.O..O.OO.O.O.O..O...............................
	..OO..O..O...O.O....O.OO............................
	....OO....OOOO.OO..OO..O............................
	....O...O.O......O...O..............................
	.....OOOO.O.OOOOO.OOO...O...........................
	.........O.O....O.O..OOOO...........................
	.......O...O..O...O.O......O........................
	.......OO..O.O.OOOO.O..OOOOO........................
	..........OO.O......O.O.....OO......................
	.............O.OOOO.O..O.OO.O.O.....................
	.............O.O..O.OO.O.O.O..O.....................
	............OO..O..O...O.O....O.OO..................
	..............OO....OOOO.OO..OO..O..................
	..............O...O.O......O...O....................
	...............OOOO.O.OOOOO.OOO...O.................
	...................O.O....O.O..OOOO.................
	.................O...O..O...O.O......O..............
	.................OO..O.O.OOOO.O..OOOOO..............
	....................OO.O......O.O.....OO............
	.......................O.OOOO.O..O.OO.O.O...........
	.......................O.O..O.OO.O.O.O..O...........
	......................OO..O..O...O.O....O.OO........
	........................OO....OOOO.OO..OO..O........
	........................O...O.O......O...O..........
	.........................OOOO.O.OOOOO.OOO...O.......
	.............................O.O....O.O..OOOO.......
	...........................O...O..O...O.O......O....
	...........................OO..O.O.OOOO.O..OOOOO....
	..............................OO.O......O.O.....OO..
	.................................O.OOOO.O..O.OO.O..O
	.................................O.O..O.OO.O.O.O..OO
	................................OO..O..O...O.O......
	..................................OO....OOOO.OO.....
	..................................O...O.O......O....
	...................................OOOO.O.OOOOO.O...
	.......................................O.O....O.O...
	.....................................O...O..O...OO..
	.....................................OO..O.O.OOO..O.
	........................................OO.O.....O..
	............................................O.OOO...
	.............................................OO.....

:60P5H2V0 (2c/5 orthogonally, p5) A 60-cell spaceship discovered by Tim Coe in May 1996. It was the first non-c/2 orthogonal spaceship to be successfully constructed via glider synthesis.

	.....O.......O.....
	...OO.OO...OO.OO...
	......OO...OO......
	........O.O........
	.O....O.O.O.O....O.
	OOO.....O.O.....OOO
	O.....O.O.O.O.....O
	..O..O..O.O..O..O..
	..OO...OO.OO...OO..
	O.......O.O.......O
	O......OO.OO......O

:67P5H1V1 (c/5 diagonally, p5) A spaceship discovered by Nicolay Beluchenko in July 2006. It was the smallest known c/5 diagonal spaceship until the discovery of 58P5H1V1 in September 2010.

	.....OOO..............
	....O...OO............
	...OO...O.............
	..O.....O.............
	.O.OO....OO...........
	OO..O......O..........
	...OO..O..............
	...OO.OO..............
	....O.................
	.....OOOOO............
	......O..OOO..OO......
	.........O.OO..O.OO...
	.........O...O.O..O...
	..........OOOOO.....O.
	.........O..O..O.....O
	.....................O
	................OOO...
	................O.....
	...............O......
	................OO....

:70P5H2V0 (2c/5 orthogonally, p5) A spaceship discovered by Hartmut Holzwart on 5 December 1992.

	..O............O..
	.O.O..........O.O.
	OO.OO........OO.OO
	OO..............OO
	..O............O..
	..OOOO......OOOO..
	..O..OO....OO..O..
	...OO..O..O..OO...
	....OO.OOOO.OO....
	.....O.O..O.O.....
	......O....O......
	..................
	.....O......O.....
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:7x9 eater A high-clearance eater5 variant that can suppress passing gliders in tight spaces, such as on the inside corner of an R64 Herschel conduit. Like the eater5 and sidesnagger, the 7×9 eater is able to eat gliders coming from two directions, though this ability is not commonly used.

	.O..........
	..O.........
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	........O.OO
	.........O.O

:83P7H1V1 = lobster

:86P5H1V1 (c/5 diagonally, p5) A spaceship discovered by Jason Summers on January 8, 2005. It was the smallest known c/5 diagonal spaceship until the discovery of 67P5H1V1 in July 2006.

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:90-degree kickback See kickback reaction.

:9hd Separated by 9 half diagonals. Specifically used to describe the distance between the two construction lanes in the linear propagator.


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