Still-lifes | Pseudo-still-lifes | P2 oscillators | P3 oscillator | P15 oscillator | Spaceships | Constellations | Methuselahs | Naturally-occurring objects

Although most of the 3-glider collisions have been explored, they have not been verified by exhaustive computer search, and it is remotely possible that some 3-glider syntheses have been missed, especially pseudo-still-lifes. Also, there has been no attempt to include all 3-glider constellations, as there are an infinite number of them.

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Toad [3] | Beacon [3] |

Toads have no stable surfaces, but one side vacillates between one and two bits, making it possible to form pseudo-objects with other toads or similar oscillators, or with even-period oscillators that create domino sparks, like the Figure-8.

Their other sides can also be placed between pairs of domino sparks in
several ways, resulting in two reactions: *toad-flipping*, where the toad
is reflected, and *toad-sucking*, where the toad is moved sideways one
position. Since each step must occur twice to return the toad to the original
period, this usually results in an oscillator of double the original period (or
quadruple, if the original period is odd). Several examples are shown in the
period 60 versions of a toad between
two pentadecathlons. Several additional
period 8 versions using
Figure-8s do *not* double the period,
because the Figure-8's domino sparks have an extra bit-spark that produces a
second domino hassling the toad twice in immediate succession each cycle.
Toad-sucking can also occur be done by pairs of
*c*/4 or
*c*/6 orthogonal spaceships
that produce domino sparks each time they advance. This could theoretically
also work with spaceships of any slower even base period that move one step each
period and produce one domino spark each period.

Pairs of toads, known as killer toads, can also eat expanding objects like middle-weight and heavy-weight spaceships, and forming 3/4 traffic light. These are most useful for eating spaceship streams whose period is a multiple of 2. For those whose period is a multiple of 3, killer candelfrobras are more appropriate.

Pulsar; Pulsar CP 48-54-72 [3] |

The Pulsar consists of four inducting Traffic light predecessors. Its predecessors are used in many other oscillators (as described under Traffic light). Pulsars are also infinitely extensible, by arranging multiple quadrants in a closed loop. The Pulsar, consisting of four quadrants, is the smallest such arrangement. The Quasar, consisting of twelve quadrants, is the next largest.

Penta- decathlon [3] |

The pentadecathlon consists of two forming Traffic light predecessors. It produces a useful domino spark, making it useful in hassler oscillators of many periods, including 15, 30, 45 and 60. Both its end and side sparks can eat gliders and the three simple spaceships in many different ways. Its end spark is also useful for reflecting gliders, and is used in glider shuttles of many periods, including 45, 60 and 75.

Its phase can also be altered (as described under the notes for Traffic light).

Light- weight space- ship; LWSS; Small fish [3] | Middle- weight space- ship; MWSS; Medium fish [3] | Heavy- weight spaceship; HWSS; Big fish [3] |

These all have a period of 4 and an orthogonal velocity of *c*/2.
They move one cell up and flip from side to side every two generations,
effectively moving two cells up every 4 generations.
Except for the glider, these are the only
common natural spaceships in Life,
and are used in some syntheses.

There are an infinite number of 3-glider constellations; these are some of the most common.

**Other costs:**
2 gliders,
3 gliders,
4 gliders,
5 gliders,
6 gliders,
1 glider/bit,
>1 glider/bit,
unknown.

**See also:** Life objects sorted by:
counts,
frequency of occurrence,
cost in gliders,
name,
size in bits,
or type.

Copyright © 1997, 1998, 1999, 2013, 2014 by Mark. D. Niemiec.
All rights reserved.

This page was last updated on
*2015-02-19*.