A finite pattern is said to exhibit infinite growth if it is such that its population is unbounded. That is, for any number N there exists a generation n such that the population in generation n is greater than N. The first known pattern to exhibit infinite growth was the Gosper glider gun.
Apparent infinite growth may occur in many cellular automata, and rules in which such patterns are commonplace are known as class three cellular automata. However, in many cases there is no known proof that any such pattern in fact will continue to grow indefinitely (and is not simply a particularly vigorous methuselah). Most patterns known to be infinite growth patterns, therefore, follow some type of orderly periodic growth.
Infinite-growth patterns can be classified by their growth rate. In any cellular automaton, the maximum rate of growth is determined by the geometry of the space. In cellular automata set in 2D Euclidean space such as Life, the maximum growth rate is quadratic; cubic, quartic, quintic etc. growth require spaces of higher dimensionality.
For linear and quadratic growth patterns, S means stationary and M mobile.
Four types of linear growth patterns can occur in cellular automata that operate by a basic engine that repeatedly creates new objects. In simple cases this leads to linear growth of the pattern's population:
- Type SS, a rare type of growth with both a stationary engine and output. One example of this is bricklayer.
- Type SM, a.k.a. gun: a pattern that has a stationary engine and moving output. For example, see Simkin glider gun.
- Type MS, a.k.a. puffer: a pattern that has a moving engine and stationary output. See puffer 2 for an example.
- Type MM, a.k.a. rake: a pattern that has a moving engine and moving output. Space rake is one such pattern.
A fifth type are linear replicators, which in their basic form cannot be separated into an engine and an output. Most known natural replicators have rule 90 type growth, and are thus sawtooths in their population growth rate.
- Main article: Breeder
Quadratic growth can be split into these sections:
- SSS breeder - A stable object, usually a slide gun, creates copies of an SS infinite growth (e.g. a slide gun that shoots out a blockstacker-like mechanism).
- SSM breeder - A stable object that generates guns.
- SMS breeder - A stable object that generates puffers.
- SMM breeder - A stationary object that produces rakes. This is more commonly referred to as a rake gun.
- MSS breeder - A moving object that generates SS infinite growth.
- MMS breeder - A moving object generates puffers periodically. Examples include Riley's breeder, metacatacryst, Jaws and pufferfish breeder.
- MSM breeder - A puffer that produces guns. Gosper's original breeder was a MSM breeder; so was Lucas Brown's LWSS breeder.
- MMM breeder - A moving pattern that produces rakes periodically (i.e. a rake puffer).
The ones in bold require the use of slide guns, so are not very frequently constructed. The remaining four types are general types of breeders. However, breeders that can be classed as SSS and SMS have also been constructed.
Similarly to wickstretchers, the spacefiller is an infinite growth pattern that can be said to be MMS. This does not create puffers in the classical sense, but instead stretches an infinite line of wickstretchers.
Small infinite growth patterns
A natural question to ask is what the smallest starting size of an infinite growth pattern can be (either in terms of number of cells, bounding box or glider synthesis). In 1971, Charles Corderman found that a switch engine could be stabilized by a pre-block in a number of different ways to produce either a block-laying switch engine or a glider-producing switch engine, giving several 11-cell patterns with infinite growth. This record stood for more than quarter of a century until Paul Callahan found, in November 1997, two 10-cell patterns with infinite growth. The following month he found the one shown to the right, which is much neater, being a single cluster. It produces a block-laying switch engine. Today 24 different infinite growth patterns with 10 cells are known (most of them found by Michael Simkin in 2014). Nick Gotts and Paul Callahan have shown that there is no infinite growth pattern with fewer than 10 cells, so that the question of the smallest infinite growth pattern in terms of number of cells has been answered completely.
Also of interest are some infinite growth patterns with particularly small bounding boxes. The following pattern is the smallest one-cell-thick pattern that exhibits infinite growth, found via computer search in October 1998 by Callahan:
Indeed, this pattern produces two block-laying switch engines at about generation 700. The following pattern (also found by Callahan) is the only pattern with infinite growth that fits inside a 5×5 bounding box. It too emits a block-laying switch engine.
Paul Callahan's pattern shows that infinite growth patterns exist in bounding boxes with area 25, but whether or not infinite growth patterns could exist in smaller boxes was not known until 2009, when exhaustive computer searches were conducted to show that there is an infinite growth pattern with bounding box 2×12 (area 24), and that this area is minimal. This pattern is shown below.
Although the simplest infinite growth patterns grow at a rate that is (asymptotically) linear, many other growth rates are possible. The following table summarizes asymptotic growth rates that have been explicitly constructed in Life:
|Growth rate f(t)||Examples|
|t2 (quadratic)||breeder 1, max, mosquito 5, metacatacryst|
|tlog(t)||tlog(t) growth, Gotts dots|
|t (linear)||block-laying switch engine, Gosper glider gun, space rake, puffer 2|
|log(t) (logarithmic)||Caber tosser 1|
It is not difficult to see that quadratic growth is the fastest possible growth rate, and many patterns that grow at such speed are now known. There are patterns that exhibit infinite growth but whose population does not tend toward infinity – see sawtooth. By combining a sawtooth with a pattern that grows infinitely at a different rate, it is possible to construct patterns that grow (for example) logarithmically at some times and linearly at other times. There are even patterns, such as the Fermat prime calculator, for which it is not known if they grow infinitely or not.
The first quadratic growth pattern constructed was the original breeder, found in 1971 by Bill Gosper. Since then, many other breeders have been found, and even some spacefillers have been constructed. It is unknown how small quadratic growth patterns can be, and a race has been taking place since the early 1990's to construct the smallest such pattern. The current record holder is 20-cell quadratic growth. Previous record holders include catacryst, metacatacryst, mosquitoes, 26-, 25- and 24-cell quadratic growth, switch engine ping-pong (23), 22- and 21-cell quadratic growth.
On March 12, 2022, dani found a pair of switch engines with perpendicular switch engines in its exhaust by searching random soups behind two pre-existing switch engines. The simplest form is two switch engines and two blocks. The minimum population is 29 cells (one 8-cell switch engine, 15 cells for three gliders to create a switch engine later in the sequence, and 6 cells for two pre-blocks). Luka Okanishi found a variant with a bounding box of 26×18, beating the previous record, a Max predecessor, and Rocknlol later found a variant with a bounding box of 23×13. This means that quadratic growth could conceivably occur naturally, since many different pairs of two interacting switch engines have occurred from random soups.
Later in the same day, dani assembled a variant of the pattern with only 23 cells, tying the previous 23-cell switch engine ping-pong record, and David Raucci was able to adjust that to create 22-cell quadratic growth, a new record for population. Both versions set new records (by a huge margin) for bounding-box size at those populations.
On March 15, a new breeder was found which allowed for the construction of a 21-cell quadratic growth pattern. On April 4, yet another breeder was found leading to a 20-cell pattern, which is the current record holder in terms of population.
- New pattern: LWSS breeder at Game of Life News. Posted by Dave Greene on February 28, 2009.
- These are not just breeders at Game of Life News. Posted by Adam Goucher on March 9, 2011.
- Michael Simkin (October 27, 2014). Re: Making switch-engines (discussion thread) at the ConwayLife.com forums
- Michael Simkin (November 5, 2014). Re: Making switch-engines (discussion thread) at the ConwayLife.com forums
- Michael Simkin (October 24, 2014). Re: Making switch-engines (discussion thread) at the ConwayLife.com forums
- "n-Cell Thick Patterns". Infinite Growth (June 5, 2009). Retrieved on June 12, 2009.
- DivusIulius (June 5, 2009). n-cell thick patterns & infinite growth (discussion thread) at the ConwayLife.com forums
- dani (March 12, 2022). Re: Cordership Discussion Thread (discussion thread) at the ConwayLife.com forums
- Luka Okanishi (March 12, 2022). Re: Cordership Discussion Thread (discussion thread) at the ConwayLife.com forums
- Rocknlol (March 23, 2022). Re: Cordership Discussion Thread (discussion thread) at the ConwayLife.com forums